Phone: +47 62430896
Fax: +47 62430851

Mailing address:
Hedmark University of Applied Science
Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife Management
Campus Evenstad
NO-2480 Koppang

Hierarchical organization structure:

At the Hedmark University of Applied sciences I am a part of the unit “Freshwater Ecology Group (FEG)” which is a subunit of the research group “Population Ecology, Evolution and Management Group (PEEMG)”.

I am also associated with the Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES) at the University of Oslo. See my web page there at;

My e-mail at that institution is;

My general research interests: 

I have a rather broad interest in various aspects of evolutionary ecology, human impacts on ecosystems, management issues and conservation biology of threatened populations and species. We apply molecular genetic methods to test for population genetic structure, migration events and gene flow among populations. In addition, we study life history, morphology and ecology through life history models, geometric morphometrics (landmarks and body shape assessment) and niche occupation (food preferences, parasites and stable isotopic signatures). Using such “integrated parameters” we can then be able to evaluate units of management and conservation. We target some central model organism on which we address following themes; (1) adaptive radiation and ecological speciation, (2) trophic specialization by trait x niche adaptations, (3) rates of divergence and selection in nature, (4) population genetic structure and mechanisms of divergence and resilience, (5) post-glacial colonization, (6) cave adaptation, (7) animal translocations, and (8) fauna crime.

Targeted model organism projects:

1. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) – management of a highly polymorphic species


Between one to four sympatric arctic char morphs can be found in a given lake. Most common are lakes with only one generalist morph which utilize the three lake niches (littoral, pelagial and profundal). In systems with two morphs the morphs partition their niches between the littoral and the pelagial area, while in systems with three morphs they split the lake into littoral, pelagial and profundal niches. In only one described system (Lake Thingvallavatn, Iceland) four morphs have been found where also a fourth piscivore morph is found. The description of these morphs have traditionally lead to taxonomic confusion likely also due to events of  parallel evolution. Sympatric morphs (2-4) are partly-highly genetically segregated. The morphs are diverging likely due to ecological speciation and it is a gradual change with buildup of reproductive segregation as a byproduct. In such there are potentially many different morphs and similar morphs among lakes may not be very similar – but there appears to be a replicated pattern. What kind of selection pressures have shaped these morphs and what kind of “evolutionary solutions” are manifested in their genomes, phenotypes and life histories. How should we detect “important information” in order to evaluate the morphs and how to manage such complex biodiversity (genetic, morphometric, lifehistory) below the species level? See our publications for more information (manuscipts in progress).

2. European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus): rapid post-glacial adaptive radiation


The European whitefish is known for its complex taxonomic situation with regard to traditionally giving morphs latin names. Throughout the Holarctic between one to three morphs can be observed in the same lake which has been the reason for the taxonomic confusion among researchers and managers. The pattern is very similar to arctic char, but with the exception that no specialized piscivore have evolved. In contrast to arctic char the whitefish have more distinct differences in the number and length of gill rakers – which are bony protruberances on the gill arch. These are adaptive traits used in foraging. In lakes with three morphs the littoral-large bodied-morph (named LSR=large sparsely rakered morph) have an intermediate number of moderately long rakers, while the pelagic smallbodied morph (DR=densely rakered morph) have the largest number of rakers that are the longest among the three morphs. The smallest number of shortest rakers are found in the intermediate body sized profundal morph (SSR=small sparsely rakered morph). The mechanims in food retention have not yet been found. As in arctic char it seem that whitefish morphs evolve due to ecological speciation. However, both allopatric differentiation, sympatric speciation and secondary contact among allopatrically evolved morphs can explain the presence of more than one morph in the same lake. See our publications for more information (#37, 36, 29, 28, 24, 20, 19, 17, 16, 14, 13, 10, 9).

3. European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus): the illegal translocation into Lake Storsjøn


Around 12-14 years ago people stocked European smelt into Lake Storsjøen. This is an illegal act and in such an act of fauna crime. The local newspaper wrote about local fishermen catching a new fish in the lake  which also harbours eight other fish species. One of our students (M. Hagenlund) got the task of finding out where the smelt was originally stocked from based on a set of ten Norwegian lakes – and we found out using genetic markers that the smelt was originally from Lake Mjøsa. We also estimated that between 200-1000 fish was stocked – thus being a deliberate act. In accordance with the test fishing results in 2012, 2015 – which showed a rapid demographic increase of the smelt populations –genetic markers also indicated this. The invasion of smelt into Lake Storsjøen could potentially affect the lake ecosystem and internal dynamics with regard to competition and predation regimes and in such one could expect considerable changes in the Lake Storsjøen ecosystem. The lake harbours a brown trout population that will likely increase in size due to new food availability, while the arctic char and the whitefish may be negatively affected. This lake ecosystem with its known prehistory of transplant of the smelt is a very good model system to study invasion dynamics and ecosystem disturbances. This should be applied on all trophic levels from primary producers all up to piscivores. See our publications for more information (#39). 

4. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): an evolutionary model organism


This species have been studied for a long time and have become a model organism in evolutionary biology og genomics. The threespine stickleback is assumed to have originated in the marine environment and have colonized freshwater numerous times following deglaciation in the northern hemisphere. Phenotypic variation in this species is often related to the number of bony lateral plates along the body flank- the pelvic spines and its apparatus, as well as the three dorsal spines. These three traits acts in concert when danger emerges - and in such has been shown to be effective agans smaller mouthsize-limited predators as the stickleback may survive after being handled in the mouth by the predator. The pelvic and dorsal spines act agains being swalloved while the lateral plates acts against being punctured. There is also a clear pattern where the marine morph have more antipredator defence (the three traits mentioned above) – where particularly the lateral plates are diminished in number and ofte size in brackish- and freshwater environments. The stickleback have a remarkable ability to rapid salinity transfer – anadromous populations are common. The abiotic and biotic conditions are very different between the marine, brackish and freshwater environments – which likely have led to the observed large phenotypic diversity. In only a handfull of lakes two benthic-pelagic morphs occur. See our publications for more information (#45, 43, 42, 41, 38, 35, 34, 32, 30, 27, 25, 22).

5. Salamander (Lissotriton vulgaris and Triturus cristatus) metapopulations studies

In Norway we have only two naturally occurring newt species. These species have been affected by human land use and in such are vulnerable to disturbances as they have an aquatic and terrestrial phase in their life history. Much effort have been put into surveying ponds and small lakes for the presence of these two species – but little knowledge exists with regard to understanding the large- and the small scale distribution patterns of newts. These newt species have a characteristic belly pattern during reproduction that are unique to individuals. In such it is possible to use “catch-mark-release” and recapture methods by photographing their bellies in a standardized way. In the theoretical metapopulation framework local populations may go extinct or originate due to migration and colonization and extinction events – where these mechanism will likely be further affected by conditions such as census population size, effective population size (Ne), gene flow, presence of habitat corridors, and migration. We lack information on population size of newts in ponds and their genetic structure including migration and colonization/extinction events. By analysing these two newt species in a metapopulation framework we can better predict “survival likelihoods” if population dynamic parameters are entered –using Population Virtual Analysis (PVA) which projects population dynamics into future. See our publications for more information (manuscipts in progress).

6. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) foraging behaviour and specific diet adaptations


The roe deer is our smallest cervid species - in addition we have moose (Alces alces) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) naturally occurring in Norway. The roe deer is common throughout the southern parts of Norway. This species often inhabits areas in close connection to agricultural activity and human setlement. Although the three cervid species seem to overlap in their diet, the foraging preferences are somehow different as particularly the roe deer seem to be more of a “feinsmecher” eating more high energy food items than at least the moose which seems to be a bulk eater. The roe deer have been functionally described to be a “consentrate selector”. The overlap in diet may also shift during the season among the three species of cervids due to presence of forage as well as due to migration events between summer and winter ranges. In this project we wish to document foraging behaviour and related aspects of food preferences in roe deer. This will be done using wild game cameras in selected areas with different plant composition during the year. During winter months the roe deer often performs small distance migration into the nearest valleys where they spend the rest of the winter period. These valleys likely provides better snowconditions and food availability than in the higher situated hilly areas. We are particularly interested in the feeding behaviour and foraging rates on different plant items in males, females and the young of the year – as roe deer likely change its diets temporally. See our publications for more information (#44, 31).

7. Small rodent (Lemmus lemmus / Myodes glareolus) demographic cycle inferences


The cyclic patterns in small rodent abundance have intrigued scientists for centuries trying to understand the underlying mechanisms behind such repeated patterns. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested to fully or partly explain observations. Some of these hypotheses which have attracted attention is the following; (i) bottom up > plant induced defense which may affect rodents through reduced reproduction and/or survival, (ii) top down > predator regulation where fox, mustelids and other predators are the real moderating factors, and (iii) climatic shifts > affecting local scale cyclic patterns in rodents as due to snow conditions. Focus have also been on large scale temporal synchrony or lack thereof. Here, one should expect synchrony if simply driven by climatic patterns – however this seems not to be the case at least on large scales. It seems likely that there is a rather complex relationship among a set of interacting variables that can explain the pattern of cyclicity or the lack of it rather than simply being one of the suggested parameters or hypotheses. Another important issue is “stochastic events” in where one can easily imagine that such disturbances can shift the expected “off its track” – and thus produce what is interpreted as “chaos or outliers” in the mind of the scientist. In this project, we work with these hypotheses – towards a better understanding of the rodent systems. See our publications for more information (#1).

Current teaching obligations – responsible teacher:

  • Topics in Applied Ecology (6SU312). Master level course. Years 2011- 16.
  • Human impacts on ecosystems (6EV320). Master level course. Years 2014-16.
  • Adaptive monitoring. PhD level course. With O. Devineau. Years 2014, 2017.

Past and current students at different levels:

I have supervised the following students:

Institutional working place Institutional department Supervisor at student level Me as the main/only supervisor Students finished Students in progress Students grades
Univ. of Oslo CEES Master 1 1 0 1C
Hihm Evenstad Bachelor 7 7 0 2A, 4B, 1C
Hihm Evenstad Master 4 1 3 1A
Hihm Evenstad PhD 2 0 2 -

I have co-supervised the following students:

Institutional working place Institutional department Supervisor at student level Me as a co-supervisor for other staffs students Students finished Students in progress Students grades
Univ. of Oslo CEES Master 6 6 0 1A, 2B, 2C
Univ. of Oslo CEES PhD 2 1 1 -
Univ. of Oslo CEES Postdoc 1 1 0 -
Hihm Evenstad Bachelor 5 0 5 -
Hihm Evenstad PhD 1 0 1 -

I act as a referee for the following scientific journals (16)

Ecology, Evolution, Molecular Ecology, Plos One, BMC Ecology, Evolutionary Applications, Evolutionary Ecology, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Journal of Fish Biology, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fish and Fisheries, Frontiers in Zoology, Current Zoology, Aquaculture International, Ecography, Archiwum für Hydrobiologia.

Peer reviewed publications summary – different journals, level 1 and 2 publications and citations per journal:

In total 45 papers in 30 journals with 397 citations (Web of Science) and 1069 citations in Researchgate:

Publication journal (number of publications):   


Imp. Factor 2015 : ( Publication level:

Summed citations:


Aquatic Sciences (1) 2.71 1  11
Arch. Hydrobiol. Sp. Iss. Adv. Limnol. (3) 2.28 1  -
BMC Evolutionary Biology (1) 3.37 2  -
Boreas (2) 2.66 2  11
Canadian Journal of Zoology (2) 1.30 1 36
Conservation Genetics (1) 2.19 1  -
Diversity and Distributions (1) 3.67 1   8
Ecography (1) 4.77 2  15
Ecology and Evolution (2)                            1.66 1 16
Ecology Letters (1)                        13.04 2  72
Evolutionary Ecology Research (3) 0.90 1  12
Ecology of Freshwater Fish (2) 1.70 1  26
Environmental Pollution (1) 4.14 1  76
FEMS Microbiology Letters (1) 2.12 1 -
Fisheries Management and Ecology (1) 1.76 1    6 
Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2) 3.23 1  85
Journal of Fish Biology (2) 1.66 1 79
Journal of Limnology (1) 1.18 1  -
Journal of  Zoology (1) 1.88 1  10
Karst Waters Institute Special Public. (1) - -  -
Linnean Society Symposium Series (1) - -  -
Molecular Ecology (4)                                              6.49 2 220
Oplandske Bokforlag - 1 -
Ornis Norvegica (3) - 1  -
Parasite & Vectors (1) 3.43 1  -
Philosophical Trans. of the Royal Soc. B (1) 7.06 2 111 
PlosOne (2) 3.23 1    2
Rural development Proceedings - - -
Quaternary Science Reviews (1) 4.57 2   46 

Peer reviewed publications – H-index calculation for K. Østbye: H=14 in the Researchgate calculation and H=13 excluding self-citations (

Peer reviewed publications the individual papers:

45. Wiig E, J. E. Reeseland, K. Østbye, H. H. Haugen & L. A. Vøllestad. 2016. Variation in lateral plate quality in Threespine stickleback from fresh, brackish and marine water: A micro-tomographic study. Plos One (provisionally accepted).

44. Rudi K, R.C. Wilson & K. Østbye. 2016. Host-specific rumen microbiota for wild boreal cervids living in the same habitat.FEMS Microbiology Letters (provisionally accepted).

43. Klepaker T., K. Østbye, R. Spence, M. Warren, M. Przybylski & C. Smith. 2016. Selective agents in the adaptive radiation of Hebridean sticklebacks. Evolutionary Ecology Research 17: 342-262.

42. Østbye, K., C. Harrod, F. Gregersen, T. Klepaker, M. Schulz, D. Schluter & L. A. Vøllestad. 2016. The temporal window of ecological adaptation in postglacial lakes: a comparison of head morphology, trophic position and habitat use in Norwegian threespine stickleback populations. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16:102. doi: 10.1186/s12862-016-0676-2

41. Mazzarella A.B., S. Boessenkool, K. Østbye, L. A. Vøllestad, E. Trucchi. 2016. Genomic signatures of the plateless phenotype in the threespine stickleback. Ecology and Evolution 6: 3161-3173. doi: 10.1002/ece3.2072

40. Pettersen R.A., K. Østbye , J. Holmen, L.A. Vøllestad & T.A. Mo. 2016. Gyrodactylus spp. diversity in native and introduced minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) populations: no support for "the enemy release" hypothesis. Parasites & Vectors, 9:51, doi 10.1186/s13071-016-1306-y 

39. Hagenlund M., K. Østbye, K. Langdal, M. Hassve, R.A. Pettersen, E. Anderson, F. Gregersen & K. Præbel. 2015. Fauna crime: elucidating the potential introduction history of European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus L.) into Lake Storsjøen, Norway. Conservation Genetics: doi: 10.1007/s10592-015-0724-2 

38. Taugbøl, A, T. Arntsen, K. Østbye & L.A. Vøllestad. 2014. Small changes in gene expression of targeted osmoregulatory genes when exposing marine and freshwater threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to abrubt salinity transfers. PLoS One 9(9): e106894. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106894

37. Østbye, K. 2014. Siken (Coregonus lavaretus L. 1758): et artskompleks med en spennende evolusjonær historie og forvaltningsmessige utfordringer, pp 337-359 in: “Ikkje berre ulv og bly”, (Eds. T. Storås & K. Langdal), Oplandske bokforlag, Vallset. (Book chapter - in Norwegian).

36. Præbel K., R. Knudsen, A. Siwertsson, M. Karhunen, K. K. Kahilainen, O. Ovaskainen, K. Østbye, S. Peruzzi, S.-E. Fevolden & P.-A. Amundsen. 2013. Ecological speciation in postglacial European whitefish: rapid adaptive radiations into the littoral, pelagic and profundal lake habitats. Ecology and Evolution 3: 1400-1412. doi: 10.1002/ece3.867

35. Voje, K.L., A.B. Mazzarella, T. F. Hansen, K. Østbye, T. Klepaker, A. Bass, A. Herland, K.M. Bærum, F. Gregersen & L.A. Vøllestad. 2013. Adaptation and constraint in a stickleback radiation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26: 2396-2414. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12240

34. Klepaker, T., K. Østbye & M.A. Bell. 2013. Regressive evolution of the pelvic complex in stickleback fishes: a study of convergent evolution. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15: 413-435.

33. Bray, S.C.E., J.J. Austin, J.L. Metcalf, K. Østbye, E. Østbye, S.-E. Lauritzen, K. Aaris-Sørensen, C. Valdiosera, C.J. Adler & A. Cooper. 2013. Ancient DNA identifies post-glacial recolonisation, as the primary driver of contemporary mtDNA phylogeography and diversity in Scandinavian brown bears. Diversity and Distributions 19: 245-256. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00923.x

32. Grøtan, K., K. Østbye, A. Taugbøl & A. Vøllestad. 2012. No short-term effect of salinity on oxygen consumption in threespine stickleback from fresh, brackish and salt water. Canadian Journal of Zoology 90: 1386-1393. doi: 10.1139/cjz-2012-0121

31. Narauskaite, G., D. Danusevicius, K. Østbye & K. Petelis. 2013. Genetic differentiation of field and forest ecotypes of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in Lithuania based on DNA markers, Page 376-381 in : Rural development Proceedings Vol. 6, Book 3, Aleksandras Stulginskis University.

30. Klepaker, T. O., K. Østbye, L. Bernatchez & L.A. Vøllestad. 2012. Spatio – temporal patterns in pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback in Lake Storvatnet. Evolutionary Ecology Research 14: 169-191.

29. Kahilainen, K.K., K. Østbye, C. Harrod, T. Shikano, T. Malinen & J. Merilä. 2011. Species introduction promotes hybridization and  introgression in Coregonus: is there sign of selection against hybrids? Molecular Ecology 20: 3838-3855. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05209.x

28. Gregersen, F., L.A. Vøllestad & K. Østbye. 2011. Temperature and food-level effects on reproductive investment and egg mass in vendace, Coregonus albula. Fisheries Management and Ecology 18: 263-269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2400.2010.00779.x

27. Le Rouzic, A., K. Østbye, T.O. Klepaker, T.F. Hansen, L. Bernatchez, D. Schluter & L.A. Vøllestad. 2011. Strong and consistent natural selection associated with armor reduction in sticklebacks. Molecular Ecology 20: 2483-2493. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05071.x

26. Davison, J., S.Y.W. Ho, M. Korsten, E. Vulla, M. Hindrikson, U. Saarma, S. Bray, J. Austin, K. Østbye, E. Østbye, S.-E. Lauritzen & A. Cooper. 2011. Late-Quaternary biogeographic scenarios for the brown bear (Ursus arctos), a wild mammal model species. Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 418-430. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.11.023

25. Bjærke, O.,  K. Østbye, H.M. Lampe & L.A. Vøllestad. 2010. Covariation in shape and foraging behavior in lateral plate morphs in the three-spine stickleback. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 19: 249-256. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0633.2010.00409.x

24. Bernatchez, L., S. Renaut, A.R. Whiteley, D. Campbell, N. Derome, J. Jeukens, L. Landry, G. Lu, A.W. Nolte, K. Østbye, S.M. Rogers, J. St-Cyr. 2010. On the origins of species: insights from the ecological genomics of whitefish. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365: 1783-1800. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0274

23. Østbye, E., T. Breiehagen, I. Mysterud & K. Østbye. 2009. Occurrence and habitat choice of waders in a high mountain sedimentation flat on Hardangervidda, South Norway. Ornis Norvegica 32: 74-90.

22. Klepaker, T.O. & K. Østbye. 2008. Pelvic anti-predator armor reduction in Norwegian populations of the threespine stickleback: a rare phenomenon with adaptive implications? Journal of Zoology 276: 81-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00471.x

21. Østbye, E., O. Hogstad, K. Østbye, L. Lien, E. Framstad & T. Breiehagen. 2007. Structure and dynamics of a high mountain vader community in South Norway: a 19 year study of passerines. Ornis Norvegica 30: 4-20.

20. Sandlund, O.T., J. Museth,  T. Taugbøl & K. Østbye. 2007. Population characteristics of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) in a 30 year old river reservoir: Løpsjøen, SE Norway. Archivum für Hydrobiologia Special Issues in Advanced Limnology 60: 205-212.

19. Østbye, K., P.-A. Amundsen, L. Bernatchez, A. Klemetsen, R. Knudsen, R. Kristoffersen,T.F. Næsje & K. Hindar. 2006. Parallel evolution of ecomorphological traits in European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex during postglacial times. Molecular Ecology 15: 3983-4001. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03062.x

18. Østbye, E., S.-E. Lauritzen,  K. Østbye & Ø. Wiig. 2006. Holocene brown bear, Ursus arctos, from Norwegian caves. Boreas 35: 296-316. doi: 10.1080/03009480600578107

17. Schulz M., J. Freyhof, R. Saint-Laurent, K. Østbye, T. Mehner & L. Bernatchez. 2006. Evidence for independent origin of two spring-spawning ciscoes (Salmoniformes: Coregonidae) in Germany. Journal of Fish Biology 68: 119-135 (Suppl. A). doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006.01039.x

16. Kahilainen K. & K. Østbye. 2006. Morphological differentiation and resource polymorphism in three sympatric whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) forms in a subarctic lake. Journal of Fish Biology 68: 63-79.  doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2005.00876.x

15. Østbye, E., S.-E. Lauritzen, D. Moe & K. Østbye. 2006.  Vertebrate remains in Holocene cave sediments: faunal succession in the Sirijorda cave, Norway. Boreas 35: 142-158. doi: 10.1080/03009480500359129

14. Østbye, K., L. Bernatchez, T.F. Næsje, M. Himberg & K. Hindar. 2005. Evolutionary history of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) as inferred from mtDNA phylogeography and gillraker numbers. Molecular Ecology 14: 4371-4387. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02737.x

13. Østbye, K., T.F. Næsje, L. Bernatchez, O.T. Sandlund & K. Hindar. 2005. Morphological divergence and origin of sympatric populations of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) in Lake Femund, Norway. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18: 683-702. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2004.00844.x

12. Ødegaard, F., O.H. Diserud & K. Østbye. 2005. The importance of plant relatedness for host utilization among phytophagous insects. Ecology Letters 8: 612-617. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00758.x

11. Østbye, E., O. Hogstad. K. Østbye, L. Lien & E. Framstad. 2002. Structure and dynamics of some high mountain bird communities of South Norway: a 19 year study of passerines. Ornis Norvegica 25: 19-48.

10. Ugedal, O., T.F. Næsje, R. Saksgård, O.T. Sandlund & K. Østbye. 2002. Do commercial gill-net fisheries impact polymorphic European whitefish in Lake Femund, Norway? Archivum für Hydrobiologia Special Issues in Advanced Limnology 57: 563-567.

9. Sandlund, O.T., T.F. Næsje, R. Saksgård & K. Østbye. 2002. Gillraker development in juvenile polymorphic whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) in Lake Femund, Norway. Archivum für Hydrobiologia Special Issues in Advanced Limnology 57: 553-562.

8. Lydersen, E., S. Øxnevad, K. Østbye, R.A. Andersen, F. Bjerkely, L.A. Vøllestad & A.B.S. Poléo. 2002. The effects of ionic strength on the toxicity of aluminium to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) under non-steady state chemical conditions. Journal of Limnology 61: 69-76. doi:

7. Poléo, A.B.S., K. Østbye, S.A. Øxnevad, R. Andersen & L.A. Vøllestad. 1997. Toxicity of acid aluminium-rich water to seven freshwater fish species: a comparative laboratory study. Environmental Pollution 96: 129-139. doi: 10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00033-X

6. Østbye, K., S. Øxnevad & L.A. Vøllestad. 1997. Developmental stability in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in acidic aluminium-rich lakes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75: 919-928.

5. Lien, A.M., K. Østbye & E. Østbye 1996. Life cycle and morphology of an epigean and a hypogean population of Gammarus lacustris G.O. Sars (Amphipoda) in South Norway. Karst Waters Institute Special Publication 2: 97-100.

4. Poléo, A.B.S., S.A. Øxnevad, K. Østbye, R. Andersen & D.H. Oughton. 1995. Survival of crucian carp, Carassius carassius, exposed to a high low-molecular weight inorganic aluminium challenge. Aquatic Sciences 57: 350-359. doi: 10.1007/BF00878398

3. Poléo, A.B.S., S.A. Øxnevad, K. Østbye, R. Andersen, E. Heibo & L.A. Vøllestad. 1995. Body morphology of crucian carp Carassius carassius in lakes with or without piscivorous fish. Ecography 18: 225-229. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.1995.tb00125.x

2. Øxnevad, S.A., K. Østbye & L.A. Vøllestad. 1995. Year class variation in fluctuating asymmetry in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from an acidic aluminium rich lake. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 4: 131-137. doi: 10.1111/j.1600 0633.1995.tb00126.x

1. Østbye, E., C.E. Engh, L. Lien, I. Mysterud, K. Østbye, Ø. Pedersen & A. Semb-Johansson. 1993. Regional distribution of lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) during cyclic highs in the Hallingdalen valley, southern Norway 1966-1985. In N.C. Stenseth & R.A. Ims (Eds.): The biology of Lemmings. Linnean Society Symposium Series 15: 187-195. 





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